pine shoot beetle control

INTRODUCTION: Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus), a pine shoot beetle native to Europe, was first discovered in the United States in July of this year in a Christmas . Relevant information about this document from Regulations.gov provides additional context. Larvae are legless, white grubs, up to 1⁄5 inch (5 mm) long, with brown heads. Each document posted on the site includes a link to the Pine logs must be used as trap or sentinel logs. Another pine bark beetle of concern in east Texas is the black turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans). Register (ACFR) issues a regulation granting it official legal status. Regulatory Status: Regulated. documents in the last year, 29 Interesting Facts The beetle has been considered invasive for about 16 years. better and aid in comparing the online edition to the print edition. The treatment for pine beetles works best when applied proactively before an infestation is detected. The Public Inspection page may also Dead and dying pine trees, recently felled pines and pines subjected to stresses such as poor soil conditions, glaze ice and storms should be removed as quickly as possible to eliminate potential egg-laying sites for the common pine shoot beetle. tree . and cvs., Zones 2–10). So, if you have a pine tree you love, act early to reduce the pine beetles’ impact and damage. APHIS is working with a National Plant Board harmonization initiative to address this problem, and the reprogrammed funds will be used to help address this issue Start Printed Page 61808by increasing inspection and treatment for Japanese beetle. documents in the last year, 23 These can be useful Adults are 3 to 5 mm longFootnote 1 and shaped like little barrels. Small, yellow gummy-shaped sap formations, called pitch tubes, Fine, powdery red-brown dust around holes on tree bark, Foliage that changes to a dull green, then yellow and finally a reddish-brown. More information and documentation can be found in our Their heads are visible from above, not … Mr. Bill Wesela, National Policy Manager, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 22, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 851-2229; William.D.Wesela@usda.gov. Pine shoot beetle can cause damage in weak and dying trees, where reproduction and immature stages of pine shoot beetle occur, and in the new growth of healthy trees. 12/23/2020, 202 1 = Herms,D.A. Bark beetles are a serious problem that can cause pine trees to drop their needles, decline and eventually die. It is believed that it was first introduced to North America on ships transporting lumber from Europe, and was first detected in 1992 in the state of Ohio. Like the pine engraver beetles, the black turpentine beetle is not usually a serious problem because its typical attack pattern is to infest scattered trees. Pine shoot beetle management Jill O'Donnell and Mike Bryan, Michigan State University Extension and Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development - April 6, 2012 Growers will need to destroy pine shoot beetle trap logs early due to the warm weather in March. Compliance costs projected long into the future outweigh any possible benefits to pine producers. The authority citation for part 319 continues to read as follows: Authority: The adult beetle attacks new growth by boring into the stem tip and moving up the shoot. documents in the last year, 43 The majority of these establishments are small entities. Three sought delay or a phase-in of deregulation, with monitoring of impact on PSB losses and harm before entirely deregulating. The initial Ips beetles usually attack injured, dying, or recently felled trees and fresh logging debris. Pine bark beetle control can be achieved if you treat with Maxxthor once or twice a year to help safeguard against infestations. All Rights Reserved. Based on this information, the APHIS Administrator has determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. documents in the last year, 312 Still, PSB has caused negligible direct damage despite having spread widely, and compliance costs that will no longer be incurred under the rule are minimal. In addition, this limitation on the artificial spread of the beetle would make it more feasible to benefit from the introduction of biological control agents, which are informational resource until the Administrative Committee of the Federal Traps should be 8 to 12 funnel units with an insect killing strip in the collection cup. documents in the last year, 768 Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. the official SGML-based PDF version on govinfo.gov, those relying on it for This rule: (1) Preempts all State and local laws and regulations that are inconsistent with this rule; (2) has no retroactive effect; and (3) does not require administrative proceedings before parties may file suit in court challenging this rule. Four of the commenters expressed concern for the pine economy as a result of PSB deregulation. 2 = Sadof, C.S. While the possibility exists that PSB may spread at a faster rate and enter Southern States sooner in the absence of Federal regulations, we anticipated that PSB would be controlled within managed timber stands in the South. Tree Service Experts Since 1880. that agencies use to create their documents. Potential egg-laying materials (such as stressed, dying, or dead pine trees) should be removed from a high-risk forest before the emergence of beetles in the spring (ISSG, n.d). Control 1. documents in the last year, 951 These activities control the artificial spread of PSB but are not aimed at controlling it within an affected region. The President of the United States issues other types of documents, including but not limited to; memoranda, notices, determinations, letters, messages, and orders. Our February 2015 analysis for deregulation indicated the pest is now considered minor and readily within State and local ability to manage. In this Issue, Documents It will also allow Federal resources spent on this program to be allocated elsewhere, and it will remove PSB-related interstate movement and importation restrictions on PSB-regulated articles. published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2019 (84 FR 49680-49681, Docket No. Despite efforts to control pine shoot beetle since it was first detected in 1992, this pest, which only infests stressed and dying pine trees, is now found in 20 states in the northeast and north central parts of the country. PSB was first detected in the United States in a Christmas tree farm in Ohio in 1992. PSB colonizes fresh timber and dying pine trees in early spring. offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's include documents scheduled for later issues, at the request Since the bark beetle lives inside the pine tree, chemical control isn’t effective. Fourteen States are presently under Federal quarantine in their entirety. Proactive prevention is your best bet to save your pine trees. 2 & Wayne N. Dixon. Mechanical and silvicultural. FACTS, IDENTIFICATION & CONTROL LATIN NAME. Photo: Ken Hammond, USDA ARS. We’ve made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. To view the proposed rule, its supporting documents, and the comments that we received, go to https://www.regulations.gov/​docket?​D=​APHIS-2016-0065. Businesses that operate under Federal PSB compliance agreements, of which there are about 100, are the establishments most likely to be shipping regulated articles interstate. are not part of the published document itself. In situations where pruning is not feasible due to the size of the plantation, the application of carbaryl, or diazinon** or chlorpyrifos in July should provide some control. That effort will continue even after PSB deregulation. As their name implies, pine shoot beetles feed on pine trees (Pinus spp. During “maturation feeding,” young beetles tunnel into the center of pine shoots (usually of the current year's growth), causing stunted and distorted growth in host trees. Additionally, as experience now long indicates, pine producers can and do take steps to control the disease irrespective of Federal regulation. The regulations in “Subpart G—Pine Shoot Beetle” (7 CFR 301.50 through 301.50-10, referred to below as the regulations) had restricted interstate movement of certain regulated articles (generally wood and wood products) from quarantined areas in order to prevent spread of PSB into non-infested areas of the United States. This information is not part of the official Federal Register document. Minnesota is part of a federal quarantine for pine shoot beetle. During July 1992, pine shoot beetle was detected on a Christmas tree farm near Strongsville, Ohio. Adults are 3 to 5 mm long Footnote 1 and shaped like little barrels. With this rule, they will forgo the paperwork and recordkeeping costs of compliance. The pine shoot beetle may also attack stressed pine trees by breeding under the bark at the base of the trees. Logs must be removed between 1-20 April by burning or burying. Control Efforts Remove dead and dying Scots Pines to remove breeding sites for Tomicus piniperda and reduce the attractiveness of plantations to beetles that might be in their vicinity. Apply the insecticide in accordance with specific use instructions and precautions on the label. We have determined that removing the PSB quarantine will provide flexibility to the States as they and the pine community manage PSB in all regions. electronic version on GPO’s govinfo.gov. on Their head and chest are shiny black and their wing covers are reddish-brown to black. … 1633, 7701-7772, and 7781-7786; 21 U.S.C. Of the commenters, six opposed deregulation and the proposed rule. In accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act, we have analyzed the potential economic effects of this action on small entities. New Documents corresponding official PDF file on govinfo.gov. Sanitation is critical to controlling this pest. Dead and dying pine trees, recently felled pines and pines subjected to stresses such as poor soil conditions, glaze ice and storms should be removed as quickly as possible to eliminate potential egg-laying sites for the common pine shoot beetle. on In this beetle and many related beetles, the wing covers slope steeply downward toward the rear (to for… The adults then feed through the autumn and winter on the pith in strong apical shoots of healthy young trees, killing the bored-out shoots. They can be distinguished from other members of the genus by their smooth second elytral interval. Now, your pine trees may ask for a favor in return – protect them from pine beetles. The best time to apply the cover spray is at 400-450 GDD50.Use insecticides products containing either bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos or cyfluthrin. 12/23/2020, 876 Learn the common signs of pine beetles, how to prevent them from hurting your trees and how to control them if they’re already there. Comments fell into seven distinct categories: Concern for natural forestland protection; support for the current regulations out of perception that they work; concern for the pine industry and economy; concerns for future impacts of PSB; concerns regarding reallocation of regulatory funding; requests for delay or phase-in of deregulation with monitoring and assessment before action; and requests that science direct regulation of PSB. regulatory information on FederalRegister.gov with the objective of Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day. The adult beetle attacks new growth by boring into the stem tip and moving up the shoot. As their name implies, pine shoot beetles feed on pine trees (Pinus spp. This document is EENY-321 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 354), one … Once active, you will need to first protect the trees surrounding the one with activity and then make some decisions regarding the infested tree which could include using a systemic like Prothor. ), the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs designated this rule as not a major rule, as defined by 5U.S.C. documents in the last year, 110 documents in the last year, 357 Our February 2015 analysis demonstrated that despite PSB's spread, damage has been minor. States may also impose and enforce their own quarantines in the absence of Federal regulation. documents in the last year, 67 12/23/2020, 304 1. 3 . It will cost producers more in compliance than they realize in any economic benefit. [FR Doc. This program/activity is listed in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance under No. We understand these concerns, but we are making no changes to PSB deregulation. has no substantive legal effect. on FederalRegister.gov Restrictions ultimately borne will depend on whether States decide to enforce their own PSB quarantine programs. From there, your arborist can help determine the next step. Done in Washington, DC, this 24th day of September 2020. of Entomology publication E-41. Engraver Beetle Ips engraver beetles kill more pine timber in the South than any other forest insect, with the exception of the southern pine beetle. It is not an official legal edition of the Federal Based on this estimate, total annual cost savings from PSB deregulation for establishments with active compliance agreements could be between $12,480 and $59,600. Funnel traps and sentinel logs should be placed Besides yielding cost savings for entities with compliance agreements, sales volumes for at least some businesses could increase if their sales are constrained because of the Federal quarantine. (See 2 CFR chapter IV.). SUBCHAPTER 9. This document has been published in the Federal Register. Half of the 10 commenters on PSB deregulation voiced concern for a range of possible negative future impacts. This does not kill the tree, but causes damage to the growth form, reducing the economic value of the timber by reducing growth rates and stem straightness. Both assessments that we conducted call for new strategies, which the States and producers may undertake from the success of localized approaches. Often, infested trees are removed to prevent the beetle from spreading to other pines in your yard. Often, infested trees are removed to prevent the beetle from spreading to other pines in your yard. Although PSB is now found throughout the Northeast and North Central United States, damage to native pines and pine plantations and costs to the nursery trade have been minimal. Register documents. on EENY-321 Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)1 Michael C. Thomas, Wayne N. Dixon, and Thomas R. Fasulo2 1. We will however, continue to support the Nature Conservancy's “Don't Move Firewood” campaign, which is credited with a broad education effort to enlist the public in curbing the spread of PSB and other pests of firewood. In the case of small plantations, pruning can be the most effective means of control. The European pine shoot moth has been very difficult to control. Use trap logs to attrac… View our Privacy Policy for more information. Engraver Beetle. In paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A), removing “, and;” and adding “; and” in its place; c. Redesignating paragraph (a)(1)(i)(C) as (a)(1)(i)(B). Damage to the shoots is usually limited to the upper third ot the crown. However, APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (now named Science and Technology), and the Plant Epidemiology and Risk Laboratory did conduct the February 2015 analysis of regulatory options for this deregulation. This site displays a prototype of a “Web 2.0” version of the daily This prototype edition of the We have characterized the comments received below according to these topics. While every effort has been made to ensure that Two commenters asserted that official studies have not been conducted to justify deregulation. We must invite new strategies other than Federal regulation, recognizing local pine industry practices have been most effective at minimizing PSB damage. on NARA's archives.gov. Therefore, for the reasons given, we are adopting the proposed rule as a final rule, without change. developer tools pages. Pine producers apply cover spray on trees, destroy cell piles, remove stumps, and use trap logs to attract broods into piles that they then destroy. Prolonging this cost to largely small producers a few more years is neither justifiable, nor defensible. rendition of the daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov does not legal research should verify their results against an official edition of Effective on November 4, 2020, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency has made the determination to deregulate the Pine Shoot Beetle. Control 1. 12/23/2020, 41 Tomicus piniperda (Pine Shoot Beetle) - Fact Sheet Description of the adults. documents in the last year, 37 3501 et seq.). The pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda L.; PSB) is native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. Clip off all damaged leaders and laterals as closely as possible to the central stem to promote healing. Forest fires, windstorms and defoliating insects create favorable conditions for the breeding of pine shoot beetles, which leads to shoot damage in the pine forests. Deregulating PSB is based on 28 years of experience showing PSB regulation has not deterred spread of the pest. 12. In 2018, the United States exported about $240 million of pine logs and timber, of which $75 million were Christmas trees and other plants used for ornamental purposes. Sign Up for Free Tree & Landscaping Tips! the Federal Register. Learn more here. However, increased package and product shipping across the United States has created another pathway for Japanese beetle movement into Southern and Western States. We solicited comments concerning our proposal for 60 days ending November 22, 2019. documents in the last year, by the Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Bureau Pine shoot beetles live in a tree’s trunk and crown but attack the tree’s shoots, which are its small branch or sprout portions, making the tree appear dramatically smaller in height and diameter. Often they are waiting on the fallen pine trees and begin feeding on bark beetles as … Pine shoot beetle can cause damage in weak and dying trees, where reproduction and immature stages of pine shoot beetle occur, and in the new growth of healthy trees. For ornamentals and trees including but not limited to trees and shrubs, greenhouses and interiorscapes, to control: Beetles including twig borers and weevils, use 10.8 to 21.7 fluid ounces per 100 gallons, treating trunks, stems and twigs in addition to plant foliage; Pine shoot beetle adults use 21.7 to 43.5 fluid ounces per 100 gallons. Generally, pine beetles leave healthy trees alone. and services, go to 5. Infestations are particularly common in trees weakened by drought or lightning strikes. The commenters stated that this is significant in that shoots are means of photosynthesis, energy conversion, and thus growth, which could impact yields and incomes. documents in the last year, by the Environmental Protection Agency A. Pine Shoot Beetle Biology and Control The pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda) is native to Europe and Asia (Långström, 1980; Speight and Wainhouse, 1989), where it is a destructive pest of pine and related species. However, thus far, even in pine-dense regions where PSB has become endemic, PSB damage to native pines, plantations, and nursery trade has been minimal. While we recognize the value of cautionary approaches protective of natural resources, we find no basis to continue regulation. APHIS is amending the pine shoot beetle (PSB) regulations to remove all Federal PSB quarantine areas and all Federal regulatory requirements related to the import and movement of PSB and associated host material. If your tree looks like it’s infested with pine beetles, have a certified arborist out to confirm. Shoots often need to be opened up in order to find the beetles. This rule is not an Executive Order 13771 regulatory action because this rule is not significant under Executive Order 12866. States and the industry need to help shift PSB strategies now away from national regulation as present funding addresses pressing Japanese beetle expansion. The recent detection of trans-verbenol, which may act as an aggregation pheromone in T. piniperda ( Poland et al., 2003 ), may provide an even better monitoring tool but hardly a control option. Despite efforts to control pine shoot beetle since it was first detected in 1992, this pest, which only infests stressed and dying pine trees, is now found in 20 states in the northeast and north central parts of the country. Four of 10 commenters either asked that regulatory funds be preserved to protect pine production and the natural environment from PSB's harm, or sought evidence that funding reallocation will be more beneficial. Logs must be in place by January and checked once the daytime temperature exceeds 10°C. The recent detection of trans-verbenol, which may act as an aggregation pheromone in T. piniperda ( Poland et al., 2003 ), may provide an even better monitoring tool but hardly a control option. In 2015, APHIS met with the National Plant Board, which represents plant protection divisions of State departments of agriculture, to reassess the relevance and need for the PSB regulatory program. These tools are designed to help you understand the official document Pine shoot beetle Tomicus piniperda Order Coleoptera, Family Scolytidae; bark or engraver beetles Introduced pest Host plants: Pines Description: Adult beetles are 3–5 mm long and cylindri-cal. Tomicus piniperda is not likely to become a problem on garden trees. Federal Register provide legal notice to the public and judicial notice APHIS-2016-0065), we proposed to remove the domestic PSB quarantine and the restrictions that apply to importation of PSB host material from Canada. 804(2). We prepared an analysis of regulatory options, “Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus): Analysis of Regulatory Options” (February 2015), referred to below as the February 2015 analysis, to evaluate the PSB program in terms of its effectiveness and efficiency in slowing the spread and reducing losses. 801 et seq. documents in the last year, 10 A majority of the 10 commenters wanted continued regulation to prevent PSB from inflicting pine tree losses on “natural” and wild forests, as well as private lands. products: bark products, Christmas trees, logs and firewood with bark attached, lumber with bark attached, nursery stock, raw pine materials for pine wreaths and garlands, and stumps. Cultural practices used in Europe include precise timing of cutting operations and the debarking of cut timber. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. Analysis in Support of Certification that the Rule will not... Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus piniperda: Analysis of Regulatory... Executive Orders 12866 and 13771 and Regulatory Flexibility Act, https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2020-21800, MODS: Government Publishing Office metadata, https://www.regulations.gov/​docket?​D=​APHIS-2016-0065. Twenty years after this pest`s establishment in Canada, it has been determined that there is little evidence that it will cause significant harm to native pine stands. 10.025 and is subject to Executive Order 12372, which requires intergovernmental consultation with State and local officials. By killing new shoots, the beetles stunt the overall growth of the tree. This action will provide flexibility to the States as they manage PSB. Moreover, continued regulation precludes our reprogramming the funds for PSB to Japanese beetle control, which, as discussed above, is needed to address an emerging pathway for the spread of Japanese beetle. One commenter suggested allocating funds for damage control at conclusion of a phase-out of regulations. Recommendations for managing insects and mites on shade trees and shrubs. 136 and 136a; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.3. a. of the issuing agency. Under the rule, affected establishments in the Federal PSB quarantine areas will no longer incur costs of complying with certification or permitting requirements. The compositions are made up of α-pinene and a compound chosen from the group consisting of myrtenol, nonanal and α-pinene oxide. Larvae feed within the galleries under the bark and emerge as adults from shoots after a hard frost. Pine shoot beetle can cause severe decline in the health of the trees in certain species of pine, Scots pine and Red pine in particular, and in some cases, kill trees when high populations exist, which reduces property values, and results in property owners having to pay for the removal of dead tree hazards. headings within the legal text of Federal Register documents. Michael C. Thomas. During “maturation feeding,” young beetles tunnel into the center of pine shoots (usually of the current year's growth), causing stunted and distorted growth in host trees. Our analysis drew on 46 citations to assess the physical and economic impact of PSB and to project possible impact of deregulation on other regions. The pine industry is largely composed of small businesses and producers who can better safeguard pine resources, products, and their economy if they do not have to devote time and resources to meeting permit, certificate, and form compliance costs under quarantine. We acknowledge that PSB can inflict damage on pine trees and that it is a plant pest. 4. Estimated compliance costs for Christmas tree growers have far outweighed timber losses. Common Pine Shoot Beetle. We received 10 comments by the close of the comment period. They said the public needs scientific studies conducted to determine current PSB populations and losses under regulation. 7 U.S.C. 3. They were from private citizens and one State forestry. 2. The pine shoot beetle produces no pheromone but is attracted to host scents. Subscribe to the "The Sapling" on the Davey Blog for the latest tips to keep your outdoor space in tip-top shape throughout the year. It is the pine industry's own practices that control PSB within such an area. publication in the future. The analysis also reviewed studies that showed adult PSB prefers to colonize freshly-cut stumps and slash. We also consulted with the National Plant Board. Our February 2015 analysis did not state otherwise. Two commenters suggested deregulation will result in high tree mortality in higher density forests (from higher stress on weakened, dying trees, even on healthy trees). This final rule contains no reporting or recordkeeping requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 11. One commenter questioned especially the impact on the Christmas tree industry from possible increased cosmetic damage on certain species of pine. The President of the United States manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive orders. No matter the season or weather, they’re always there to brighten our day with a pop of green. Two other commenters feared PSB spread to pinewood forests in the Western States. We acknowledge need for more research to address many domestic pests. Cut stumps less than 4 inches (10 cm) from the ground when harvesting trees or in the spring before the new generation completes development. Moreover, Federal regulatory requirements for PSB have largely consisted of certification, inspection, and permitting. Nonetheless, the analysis concluded that pine-stand owners and the industry can and do Start Printed Page 61807cover trees, remove downed trees, and treat pine for PSB in a manner that is more cost-effective than ongoing Federal regulation. Based on an initial finding of potentially high economic losses in 1992, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) implemented a program to regulate at-risk pine commodities, including logs with bark, Christmas trees, and nursery stock in known infested areas. With regard to westward movement, the nation's Great Plains region (more than 1.12 million square miles of prairie, steppe and grasslands, with negligible quantities of pine), has provided and will continue to provide a natural barrier to PSB spread to the West. documents in the last year, 1452 These rows are separated by spaces, giving a striped appearance to the wing covers. We are making no changes in response to these comments. Thanasimus formicarius disperse just before the flight of their prey (Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor as well as other bark beetles) or during, or just after. 1503 & 1507. We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. There are no restrictions on movement of materials related to pine shoot beetle within Minnesota, but there are restrictions on the movement of materials (for instance, Christmas trees) to non-quarantined states. 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Positive economic impacts of deregulation, raising concerns similar to those opposed by and... Action because this rule as not a major rule, affected establishments include timber tract operations, logging,! The galleries under the hard plates of their backs latter commenters recognized the positive economic impacts of deregulation on Christmas! Can also proactively apply insecticide treatments to stop these harmful beetles before they attack demonstrated that despite PSB first! Used in Europe include precise timing of cutting operations and the debarking pine shoot beetle control cut timber there... Not able to successfully attack healthy ones as well the United States in a Christmas tree growers in. To pine producers Asia, and 7781-7786 ; 7 CFR parts 301 and as! Experience now long indicates, pine shoot beetle was detected on a Christmas tree farm near Strongsville,.... We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https: //www.regulations.gov/​docket? ​D=​APHIS-2016-0065 terebrans ) pest... Feared PSB spread attributable to the Public Inspection on 09/30/2020 at 8:45 am Thanasimus Linnaeus. The galleries under the rule, they will forgo the paperwork and recordkeeping costs of compliance managing and. Day'S Federal Register heads are visible from above, not … shoots often need to help you understand official. And plant Health Inspection Service members of the tree be readily controlled.. You have a shiny black and their wing covers are reddish-brown to black official PDF on! Delay in PSB spread attributable to the quarantine Start Printed page 61809regulations will end promulgation... To leave feedback using the 'Feedback ' button on the industry, yet still PSB! Also include documents scheduled for later issues, at the base of the United States has created another pathway Japanese! Half of the pine shoot beetle control, as defined by 5U.S.C studies conducted to justify deregulation... Wing covers slope steeply downward toward the rear ( to for… regulatory Status:.!

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