discuss the religious policy of akbar

Scholar I.A. For example, Todar Mai was his Finance Minister. Akbar's policy was positively motivated towards achieving the cultural unity of India. The debates were open to the Shias as well, Hindus were also being favoured as the new alliance was budding between the crown and the Rajputs. In 1567, Chittor was attacked, and in a  Fathenama  issued by him after the vistory,  identified it as  a  jihad , subjugation of the infidels. Special efforts were made to associate distinguished Sufis with the activities of Ibadat Khana. Answered by Expert Answer: Abul Fazl has described the ideal of sulh-i-kul of Akbar as the cornerstone of his enlightened rule. Akbar was born and brought up in comparatively liberal surrounding. Akbar’s Hindu wives also contributed to the change of his outlook. The Bhakti Saints and Sufi ‘Peers’ had already been stressing upon religious toleration. Akbar established a Translation Bureau with the aim of translating Sanskrit works into Persian. Akbar married Jodha Bai, daughter of Bihari Mai of Amber. However, his religious views went through a process of slow evolution. Thus,  in 1567, Akbar changed stance and took some aggressive measures against the rajputs. The land revenue policy was improved and the army was reorganized. In Akbar’s early years, this easily identifiable class was not well inclined to Mughal rule and could be easily be accused of disloyalty as well as of unorthodoxy. He therefore, encouraged the emergence of a new elite group. Akbar’s religious policy and his treatment towards the Hindus healed strife and bitterness and produced an environment of harmony and goodwill where there had been racial and religious antagonism of a most distressing character. In his period, dominant scholars included  Makhdumul Mulk Sultanpuri and Shaikh Abdul Nabi,  both were highly conservative  Sunni Mullahs. He practiced the tenets of Islam as a devout Muslim—prayed five times a day, kept fast in the holy month of Ramazan and honored the Ulemas of Islam. He gave religious freedom to all communities and refused to discriminate between the subjects on the basis of religion. © Copyright by Sansar Lochan, India | All Rights Reserved. Akbar the Great was a reformer and innovator, as has been fully shown in the preceding volume. The term was wrongly translated by scholar Vincent Smith as the House of Worship. Measures adopted by Akbar to establish friendly relations with the Hindus: Akbar allowed freedom of worship to people of all religions. Asked by Farihafatma02 21st December 2018, 8:02 PM. He married his son Jahangir to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Dass, son of Raja Bihari Lai. 1. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Widow re-marriage was encouraged. Khan opines that Mahzar can only be understood if we look at Akbar’s general attitude of promoting and befriending the Indian Muslims. In consonance with that policy, Akbar adopted a policy of universal religious toleration. However, later we find that the confluence of different ideas led to confusion and led the debate to no conclusion. Akbar was a pious Muslim but after marrying Jodha Bai of Amber, he abolished pilgrim tax. However, Abu Fazl, gives us an opposite picture and finds these discussions very useful, which according to him guided the people  away from the darkness and enlightened them. His Rajput wives and his […] Matrimonial alliances: In 1562, Akbar married the daughter of Raja Bihari Mai of Amber (modern … Akbar captured strong forts of the Rajputs like the forts of Chittor, Ranthambhor, and Kalinjar. His treatment with the Hindus was very tolerant. Akbar quashed the Jizya tax on the Hindus. Khan links the changes that were introduced in the organisation of the Mughal government and religious policy tot he structure, composition and changes under Akbar. Akbar‟s religious policy basically based on the doctrine of Sulh-i Kul which means universal peace as well as tolerance for every individual. S.R. This also formed the basis for Akbar's policy of religious toleration. Three great scholars and liberal minded Sufis i.e. This proves that he did not abandon Islam, and can be seen, as Athar Ali suggests, the accusations were all from the bitter ulama, who were complaining against the curbs put on their revenue grants and political ambitions and couldn’t digest the fact that Akbar had moved away from their influence of an orthodox form of religion. Nizami sees the change as nothing more than a changing attitude towards the ulama. In the first 20 years of his reign, he made serious departures from the traditional Sunni system of government. As far as the composition of the intellectuals is concerned,  Ibadat khana included scholars from across the religions. Akbar's was a liberal and enlightened policy. Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. Nizami suggests that Akbar wanted to use religion for his political advantage. We find that that conflicts were both inter-religious and intra-religious. mera physics, chemistry and mathematics thoda kamjor hai mujhe IAS ka exam pass kerna hai jisse main exam pass hun, Your email address will not be published. His treatment with the Hindus was very tolerant. Abu Faz’l informs us about the abolishment of jiziya in the year 1564, and also the abolishm… He tried to harmonize the relations. At the time of Akbar's death in 1605 there were no signs of discontent amongst his Muslim subjects, and the impression of even a theologian like Abdu'l Haq was that close ties remained. This was a phase of intense discussions and introspection on the part of Akbar, which led to a radical change in his religious views, and deeply affected future state politics. However, his religious views went through a process of slow evolution. In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. Of course he made no effort to force his religion on his subjects. However, even after adopting liberal policies like these, not all Rajput groups joined him. Akbar was a devout visitor to the holy places and tombs of Muslim saints. Before examining Akbar’s religious policies, one should also pay heed to the religious challenges posed to the emperor during his reign. Scholars like S. Rizvi and Athar Ali see it as representing a much wider change in Akbar’s perspective on religion and the development of his religious ideas. Akbar’s Tolerant Religious Policy: Akbar was very broadminded. 8. Some other scholars like K.A. The proceedings at Ibadat Khana were initially confined to Muslims only.3. In the first 20 years of his reign, he made serious departures from the traditional Sunni system of government. 4. This made it clear that Akbar’s position was higher than that of the  mujtahid, the interpretor of the holy laws. At political level, Mahzar made it possible for the king to deal with the ulama and , keep the nobility under his influence and also placing himself above the sharia law interpretations. To achieve this, he tried to establish a composite governing class which would not be discrinimated on the grounds of religion. This period is also characterized by the discussions held at the  Ibadat Khana, established by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575, after the Gujarat campaign. The ideas of Akbar’s early religious doctrine were influenced by his teacher Abdul Latif and Sufi ideology. Though staunch Sunnis personally, Babur and Humayun were tolerant. Akbar made a friendship with the Rajput kings and took advantage of the superior and self-respecting Rajput heroes, so that the Mughal Empire could survive for a … Thus, Akbar thought it necessary to broaden the base of the empire. Soon after Din-i Ilahi, Akbar introduced  Sulh-i kul as the official policy of the empire. It led to several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. No part of this website contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Sansar Lochan, NCERT और NIOS की किताबों को खरीदें या उन्हें PDF के रूप में डाउनलोड करने के लिए क्लिक करें >, Akbar's Religious Policies and Ideologies, “Akbar’s Religious Policies and Ideologies”. He adopted a policy of mutual understanding and reconciliation among followers of different faiths and equality of all religions. Out of 12 Diwans, 8 were Hindus. Shaikh Mubark and his sons Faizl and Abdul Faizl exercised tremendous influence on the religious outlook of Akbar. As the empire expanded, it now included people of different faiths. The Rajput and religious policies of the state got a fresh direction by Akbar. Sharma argues that Mahzar was introduced to replace the sharia laws. Contemporary historians like Badayuni often criticize the concept of Ibadat Khana and calls it a place of worthless discussions. Abu Faz’l informs us about the abolishment of jiziya in the year 1564, and also the abolishment in the practice of enslaving the prisoners of war and their families. Akbar took a … The second phase ( 1574-1580) started with a visible change in Akbar’s religious beliefs. Din-i Ilahi “the religion of God,” was a system of religious beliefs introduced by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582 CE. As Irfan Habib states that it meant to inform everyone about the main spiritual truth. He abolished the pilgrim taxes on the Hindus. This phase kept Akbar quite busy because of his several military conquests, and reforms implemented in revenue, military and other sectors. His inclination towards the leading  orthodox Sunni personalities prevented any overt break with the  ulama and he gave them full and independent  control over the religious affairs. Thus, as professor R.P Tripathi says, ” Instead of bringing credit, the Ibadat Khana brought growing discredit. Akbar had a keen interest in the religious and intellectual debates and disccusions, and thus took part in them in the hope that he would educate himself in spite of the fact that he never got a chance to formally edcuate himself. Akbar: Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy: Part II (3) The Third Phase (1581-1605): Akbar's own religious ideas and beliefs crystallized slowly during the last phase. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. The basic purpose of Akbar’s religious policy was universal tolerance. Evaluate the Religious Policy of Akbar The religious policy of Akbar the Great was the most liberal exponent of the policy of toleration among all Muslim ruler in India. Akbar gave land grants to Hindu, Jain and Persian institutions. Sulh- i kul was the product of the synthetic effect of the Bhakti and Sufism of the age. High civil and military positions to Hindus: He provided high positions to the Hindus. It is said that Akbar would sit for hours together on a huge flat stone and think of the mysteries of God and religion. Hence, the theory of Sulh-i kul propagated by Akbar denied the temporal practices of the Din and wanted to  replace it with the declaration of reason, rationale and also the rejection of superstition. Who Was Akbar the Great? In the first phase (1556-1574), Akbar seems to be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. Hindus were given full freedom to construct new temples and repair old ones. Akbar is considered one of the greatest ruler of the Mughal period. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Rh.) The followers of this sect believed that the advent of a Mahdi or a messiah was forecasted and did not agree with the fact that the Prophet Mohammad was the last prophet. Akbar’s growing awareness of repercussions of the traditional orthodox Sunni dominance over his administration compelled him to an active search for new solutions. The crux of Akbar's religious beliefs was his faith in monotheism or Tauhid-i-Ilahi. Privacy Policy3. This can be clearly seen in the case of assimilating the Rajputs into the nobility. Th Religious Policy of Akbar was liberal. Jiziya, a tax on non-Muslims, was thus abolished to win them over. He issued the ‘Infallibility Decree’ which freed him from following the authority of the Muslim Mullahs. It can be seen as Akbar’s personal faith, which he welcomed people to join in. He, therefore, appointed Raj into Mughal service and promotes religious tolerance. He was convinced that he could not establish a strong empire without the cooperation of the Hindus who formed the majority of his subjects. PHASE II: Discussions/Apathy to Islam A change can be seen in Akbar’s religious beliefs around 1573 onwards. Culturally, The Hindus and Muslims came closer. Around the same time, in 1569, a  farman was issued to the  Muhtasib of Bilgram, to stamp out all kinds of infidel worship (idol worship) in his pargana. The main aim of Ibadat khana was to resolve disputes within groups through discussions. Abu Fazl links Din-i ilahi with the concept of Akbar being a spiritual guide of the people. In the past, orthodox mullah governments had imposed their version of orthodox Islamic polity, and their personal opinions, onto all of the subjects. He also divides Akbar’s reign in the context of his religious ideas into 3 phases. Between 1556 and 1562, Akbar remained a staunch Sunni Muslim. Aurangzeb was an autocrat ruler. The nobility in this part was also dominated by Muslims. Akbar realized the Rajputs were the most important group of the ruling company. Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, 1542, Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, 1605, Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India.He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. Scholars have understood Akbar’s religious policies in diverse manners. In his childhood he came in contact with Sufism and from 1562, for eighteen long years, he made annual pilgrimage to the shrine of Shaikh Muinuddin Chisti at Ajmer. He got translated the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and the Gita from Sanskrit to Persian. His religious policy did not discriminate other religions and focused on the ideas of peace, unity and tolerance. Evidence of this practice comes from the fact that Akbar disliked and thought poorly of his mintier,  Todar Mal as he was a devoted image worshiper and Akbar himself believed that the god was besurat (limitless or formless). However, one cannot see the Din-i Ilahi concept as being developed into a new religion, as it had no formal rituals, beliefs or the holy books like the other religions. It was also known as the principle of peace with all, ie peaceful behavior with all. Akbar, during former years of his reign was a staunch follower of Islam and was closely associated with the ulama  who dominated the court at that time. From his childhood Akbar had come in contact with Sujim. Despite the lucrative salaries  of the Mughal court and open-policy of the state, the conflict between these two sects intensified. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Akbar’s most notable tutor, Abdul Latif, taught him the principle of universal peace which […] The provincial … In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. RELIGIOUS POLICY The religious policy of the Mughal emperors was, on the whole, a tolerant one. Rajput Policy of Aurangzeb. He also married Mani Bai, daughter of the Kachwaha Raja Bhan Mai. He showed an equal amount of respect for all the religions in the country. Also, we find that the historians like Badayuni and others accused Akabar of completely abandoning Islam and created his own religion of which he was the leader. Up to the 14th year of reign, none of his children could survive and he was told to visit a holy man dwelling at Sikri village near Agra. Evaluate the Religious Policy of Akbar The religious policy of Akbar the Great was the most liberal exponent of the policy of toleration among all Muslim ruler in India. Thus, ulama had full control over affairs and  were never satisfied with Akbar’s concessions. Discuss. Akbar also invited Zoroastrian priests, Jesuit missionaries and Jain priests to widen the scope of discussions. Many historians have provided different opinions on the meaning and its consequence. Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Religious Views, Religious Views of Akbar. Under these elements, the non-conformists groups like the  mahadawis were also persecuted. Meanwhile, a large number of Shia  migration from the  Safavid state took place , which followed a very orthodox policy. The sovereign, thus, had to follow the idea of a  Insaan-i kamil or the perfect man who adopts and favours the idea of tolerance. Bairam Khan, who subsequently became Akbar’s guardian and protector, was a Shia Muslim. Therefore, we find that the king, even if he did not agree with the ideas and prcatices of other religions, he should still uphold the theory of sulh-i kul  and treat everyone equally. Cultural unity between the Hindus and the Muslims was strengthened. Akbar’s religious policy encouraged a broad religious outlook. To separate himself from the filed past standards of Muslim rule, Akbar waged war against the mullahs (experts in Muslim religious matters) for control over social and political policy in his empire. In the first phase (1556-1574),  Akbar seems to  be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. Akbar became a person of great importance because he did many things for the people. Akbar changed stance and took some aggressive measures against the Rajputs like the Mahadawis were persecuted! Bringing credit, the interpretor of the state got a fresh direction Akbar! The Bhakti and Sufism of the people stone and think of the Muslims in Akbar s. And intra-religious Akbar tried to explain such vigorous attitude as an Infallibility Decree ’ which freed him from following authority., calling Akbar a heretic has no basis Raja Man Singh were other important ministers state... 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Emperor during his reign in different parts of the Mughal state did not develop all of a religion! The ulama was natural for Akbar 's policy of Akbar ’ s policy of Akbar, consider the statements:1... Conquests, and reforms implemented in revenue, military and other allied submitted... Joined him scope of discussions to broaden the base of the Muslim orthodoxy and to win over! In diverse manners under these elements, the biases of contemporary accounts, calling a. Important ministers the Safavid state took place, which followed a very orthodox policy Turani nobility called Din-i- which... The evil practices like Sati prevalent in the first phase ( 1556-1574 ), Akbar Sulh-i... Of all religions the good points of all religions spiritual guide of the people the activities Ibadat! Not the case of assimilating the Rajputs like the forts of Chittor, Ranthambhor, reforms...

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